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1. MIL-STD-2164 (EC), Military Standard Environmental Stress Screening Process for Electronic Equipment.

2. DoD-HDBK-344 (USAF), Environmental Stress Screening of Electronic Equipment.

3. Environmental Stress Screening Guide, Technical Report No. AD-A206, U.S. Army, Ft. Belvoir, VA, January 1989.

4. Environmental Stress Screening Guidelines for Assemblies, Institute of Environmental Sciences, March 1990.

5. Pecht, M., and Lall, P., "A Physics of Failure Approach to Burn-In," Proceedings of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, 1993.

6. Lambert, R.G., "Case Histories of Selection Criteria for Random Vibration Screening," The Journal of Environmental Sciences, January-February 1985, pp. 19-24.

7. Smithson, S.A., "Effectiveness and Economics--Yardsticks for ESS Decision," Proceedings of the Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1990.

8. Mandel, C.E.N., Jr., "Environmental Stress Screening," Electronic Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1989, pp. 875-876.

9. Smith, W.B., and Khory, N., "Does the Burn-In of Integrated Circuits Continue to be a Meaningful Course to Pursue?," Proceedings of the 38th Electronic Components Conference, IEEE, 1988, pp. 507-510.

10. Pantic, D., "Benefits of Integrated-Circuit Burn-In to Obtain High Reliability Parts," IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol. R-35, No. 1, 1986, pp. 3-6.

11. Shaw, M., "Recognizing the Optimum Burn-In Period," Quality and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 3, 1987, pp. 259-263.

12. Huston, H.H., Wood, M.H., and DePalma, V.M., "Burn-In Effectiveness - Theory and Measurement," Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium, IEEE, 1991, pp. 271-276.

13. Suydo, A., and Sy, S., "Development of a Burn-In Time-Reduction Algorithm Using the Principles of Acceleration Factors," Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium, IEEE, 1991, pp. 264-270.

14. Trindade, D.C., "Can Burn-In Screen Wearout Mechanisms?: Reliability Modeling of Defective Subpopulations--A Case Study," Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium,IEEE, 1991, pp. 260-263.

15. Parker, P.T., and Harrison, G.L., "Quality Improvement Using Environmental Stress Screening,"AT&T Technical Journal, July-August, 1992, pp. 10-23.

16. Chik, K.D., and Devenyi, T.F., "The Effects of Screening on the Reliability of AlGaAs/GaAs Semiconductor Lasers," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 35, No. 7, July 1988, pp. 966-969.

17. Tang, W.C., Altendorf, E.H., Rosen, H.J., Web, D.J., and Vettiger, P., "Lifetime Extension of Uncoated AlGaAs Single Quantum Well Lasers by High-Power Burn-In in Inert Atmospheres,"Electronics Letters, Vol. 30, No. 2, January 20, 1994, pp. 143-145.

18. McClean, H., "Highly Accelerated Stressing of Products With Very Low Failure Rates,"Proceedings of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1992.

About the Author

Lloyd Condra wrote this article while employed as a consultant to Hanse Environmental, Inc. Today, he is a Principal Engineer at Boeing Company in Seattle. Previously, he was affiliated with AT&T Bell Labs, Medtronics and Eldec. Mr. Condra is a graduate of Leigh University with an M.S. degree in material engineering, and is the author of two technical reference books. Hanse Environmental, Inc., 235 Hubbard St., Allegan, MI 49010, (269) 673 8638.

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